UGC NET Computer Science
The subject is fully divided into two papers, UGC NET Computer Science paper 2 and paper 3 (Part – A & B).
UGC NET Computer Science paper 2 will cover 50 objective type questions (Mul
tiple choice, Matching types, True / False, Assertion-Reasoning type) carrying 100 marks.
UGC NET Computer Science paper 3 will have two parts (Part A & B).
UGC NET Computer Science paper 3 (A) will have 10 short essay type questions (300 words) carrying 16 marks each. In this there will be one question with internal choice form each unit. (i.e. 10 questions form 10 units will lead to a total of 160 marks).
UGC NET Computer Science paper 3 (B) will be compulsory & there will be one question form each of the electives.
The candidate will attempt only one question (one elective only in 800 words) carrying 40 marks. Total marks of UGC NET Computer Science paper 3 will be 200.
UGC NET Computer Science PAPER 2
Sets (groups categorization), Relation (first ordered pairs), Functions (second ordered pairs), Pigeonhole Principle (counting arguments), Inclusion/Exclusion Principle, Equivalence & Partial orderings, Elementary counting techniques, Probability, Measure(s) for information & total information.
Compatibility : Model of Computation – Finite Automata, Pushdown Automata, Non-determinism & NFS, DPDA & PDAs & languages accepted by these structures, Grammar languages, Non-compatibility and examples of non computable problems.
Graph: Definitions walks paths (full), trails (series of records), connected graphs (ADT, LAX, PVD), regular & bipartite graphs, cycles & circuits, tree & rooted tree, spanning trees, eccentricity of a vertex radius and diameter of a graph, central graphs, centres of a tree, Hamiltonian & Eulerian graphs, Planar graphs.
Group: Finite field & error correcting / detecting codes.
Propositional (Boolean), Predicate logic, Well -Formed-Formulae (WFF), Satisfiability & Tautology.
Logic Families: TTL (transistor-transistor logic), ECL (emitter coupled logic) & C-MOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductors) gates, Boolean Algebra and minimization of Boolean Functions (true, false), Flip-Flop Types (sr & jk), Race Condition & Comparison, Design of Combinational & Sequential Circuits.
Representation of Integers: Octal (base 8), Hexadecimal (base 16), Decimal (base 10), Binary, 2’s complement (adding 1 to 1’s complement) & 1’s complement arithmetic (all 1’s to 0’s & vice versa) , Floating Point Representation.
Programming in C & C++
Programming in C: Elements of C: Tokens (smallest individual unit of a program), Identifiers, Data types in C. Control Structures in C: Sequence (one time modification), Selection and Iteration (selection of using if/if-else, prevention in repeating). Structured data types in C: arrays, struct, union, string & pointers.
Object Oriented Programming Concepts: Class (collection of objects), Objects (any identity with some characteristics & behaviour), Instantiation, Inheritance (ability of a class to inherit features from another class), Polymorphism (ability of a class to be inherited in more than one form) & Overloading.
C++ Programming: Elements of C++: Tokens, Identifiers. Variables & Constants, Data types, Operators, Control Statements (if, else if, while, do-while, for), Functions (overloading), Parameter Passing (call by value, call by reference), Class & Objects (any identity with characteristics & behaviour). Constructors (same name of that of the class) & Destructors (invoked when object is destructed) . Overloading, Inheritance (ability of a class to inherit features form another class), Templates, Exception Handling (errors & error handling).
Relational Dtatbase Design & SQL
Relational Database Design: E-R diagrams & their transformation to relation design, Normalization – 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, 4NF. Limitations of 4NF & BCNF.
SQL: Data definition language (DDL), Data manipulation language (DML), Data control language (DCL) commands. Database objects like – Views, Indexes, Sequences, Synonyms, Data dictionary.
Data & File Structures
Data Structure: Data, Information, Definition of data structures. Arrays (systematic arrangements of objects), Stacks (LIFO), Queues (FIFO), Linked Lists (group of nodes which together represent a sequence), Trees (widely used abstract data type), Graphs, Priority queues & heaps.
File Structure: Fields, Records & Files, Sequential, Direct, Index-sequential & Relative files. Hashing, Inverted lists, & Multi-lists. B Trees & B+ Trees.
Network Fundamentals: Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), Wireless Network, Inter Network.
Reference Model: The OSI Model (Open Systems Interconnection) , TCP/IP (four layered reference model) Model.
Data Communication: Channel capacity, Transmission media – Twisted pair (technique in which two conductors are twisted together), Coaxial cables (inner conductor is surrounded by insulating layers), Fiber optic cables (a bundle of glass threads), Wireless Transmission – radio, microwave, infrared and milimeter waves. Light Wave Transmission. Telephones – local loops, trunks, multiplexing, switching, narrowband ISDN, ATM, High Speed LANs (Ethernet-based protocol), Cellular Radio Communication (radio communication based on cells). Satellite – Geosynchronous & Low – orbit.
Internetworking (connection of a computer network with other computers): Switch, Bridge (filteration of data traffic), Router (device that forwards data packets between computer networks), Gateways Concatahetsd Virtual Circuits, Tunnelling, Fragmentation, Firewalls.
Routing: Virtual circuits (circuit between points in a network that appears to be discrete) & datagrams (transfer unit associated with packet switching), Routing algorithms, Congestion control.
Network Security: Cryptography – Public key, Secret key. Domain Name System (DNS) – Electronic mails and World Wide Web (WWW). The DNS Resource Records, Name Services, E-mail Architectures & Servers.
System Software & Compilers
Assembly language fundamentals (8085 based assembly language programming). Assemblers – two-pass & single-pass, Macros & macro-processors (short hand notations).
Loading, Linking, Relocation, program relocatability (that is located in different parts of the memory). Linkage editing (creation of one module by cross checking).
Text editors. Programming environments. Debuggers & program generators.
Compilation & Interpretation. Bootstrap compilers (process of writing a compiler). Different phases of compilation process . Lexical analysis (conversion of sequence of characters into tokens). Lex package on operating systems.
Context free grammars (CFG), Parsing & parse trees, Representation of parse (derivation) trees as rightmost & leftmost derivations. Bottom-up parsers – shift-reduce, operator precedence & LR, YACC package on UNIX system.
Top-down parsers – Left recursion & its removal. Recursive descent parser. Predictive parser, Intermediate codes – Quadruplets, Triplets, Intermediate Code Generation (conversion of representation into machine code), Code Generation (Parse tree, abstract syntax tree), Code Optimization (modification of a software).
Operating Systems and management of hardware with UNIX
Memory Management: Virtual memory (memory management technique), Paging (storage and retrieval of data form secondary storage). Fragmentation (a phenomenon in which storage space is used inefficiently, reducing capacity and performance).
Concurrent Processing: Mutual exclusion (no two processes or threads are there in the critical section in the same time), Critical regions, Lock & unlock.
Scheduling: CPU Scheduling (FCFS), I/O Scheduling (SJR), Resource Scheduling, Deadlock (major problem for the congestion) & Scheduling Algorithms. Banker’s Algorithm for deadlock detection & prevention.
The UNIX System: File System (detailed study), Process Management (including techniques), Borne shell, Shell variables, Command line programming.
Filters & Commands: pr, head, tail, cut, paste, sort, uniq, tr, join, grep, egrep, fgrep, sed, awk.
System Calls (like) : create, open, close, read, write, iseek, link, unlink, stat, fstat, umask, chmod, exec, fork, wait, system.
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC): Steps, Waterfall model, Prototypes Spiral model.
Software metrics: Software project management (Project planning, monitoring & control).
Software Design: System design (Architecture, Components, Modules), Detailed design (computer-aided design (CAD)), Function oriented design, Object oriented design, User interface design, Design level metrics.
Coding & Testing: Testing level metrics, Software quality & reliability, Clean room approach, software reengineering.
Current Trends & Technologies
Parallel Computing: Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) & Message Passing Interface (MPI) Libraries & calls. Advanced Architectures, Today’s Fastest Computers.
Moblie Computing: Mobile Connectivity - cells, Framework, Wireless delivery technology & switching methods (Microwaves, Satellites, Infrared Communication & Global Area Network), Mobile Internet Device (MID), Mobile Data internetworking standards (Wi-Fi), Cellular data communication Protocols (CDMA, GSM), Mobile Computing Applications (Devices, Limitations, Security Issues), Mobile Databases (client-server): protocols, scope, tools & technology. M Business.
E-Technology: Electronic Commerce – Framework, Media Convergence Of Applications, Consumer Applications (GPS), Organisation Applications (Rules and regulations). Electronic Payment Systems (Metro Smart Cards and Digital Tokens): Risks in Electronic Payment Systems, Designing Electronic Payment System.Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Concepts, Applications, (Legal Security & Privacy) issues, EDI & electronic Commerce, Standardisation & EDI, EDI Software Implementation, EDI Envelope for Message Transport, Internet-based EDI. Digital Libraries & Data Warehousing: Concepts, Types of Digital documents (invoice, quote, RFP, Proposal), Issues behind document Infrastructure (Digital Signatures), Corporate Data Quality Management.
Software Agents: Characteristics & Properties of Agents, Technology behind Software Agents (Applets, Browsers & Software Agents).
Broadband Telecommunications: Concepts, Frame Relay (Standardised WAN originally designed for transport across ISDN), Cell Relay (Neither flow control nor error correction), Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) (Telecommunication Concept defined by ANSI and ITU). Main concepts in Geographical Information Systems (GIS), E-cash, E-Business, ERP packages.
Data Warehousing or Enterprise Data Warehouse (Benefits of Data Warehouse, Generic Data Warehouse environment), architecture of a data warehouse methodology, analysis, design, construction & administration.
Data Mining: Extracting models & patterns from large databases, data mining techniques, classification, regression, clustering, summarization, dependency modelling, link analysis, sequencing analysis, mining scientific & business data.
Windows Programming: Introduction to Windows Programming-Win32, Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC), Documents & Views, Resources, Message Handling in Windows.
Simple Applications (In Windows): Scrolling, Splitting views, Docking Toolbars, Status bars, Common Dialogues.
Advanced Windows Programming: Multiple Document Interface (MDI), Multithreading. Object Linking & Embedding (OLE), Active X Controls, Active Template Library (ATL), Network Programming.
UGC NET Computer Science PAPER 3(a)
Unit – I :
Combinational Circuit Design (the foundations for the design), Sequential Circuit Design (designing via logic circuits), Hardwired & Micro Programmed processor design (CPU organization), Instruction formats (when assembler possesses an instruction), Addressing modes (direct, indirect, register-indirect) Memory types and organisation, Interfacing peripheral devices, Interrupts (technique for computer multi-tasking).
Microprocessor architecture (8085, 8086), Instruction set and Programming ( 8085, P – III / P – IV ), Microprocessor applications (various uses of microprocessors).
Unit – II :
Database Concepts (Subclass & superclass), ER diagrams (entity relationship), Data Models (ISDM, GIS), Design of Relational Database (features of good relational design), Normalization (technique for designing relational database), SQL and QBE (differences and introduction to SQL & Query-by), Query Processing and Optimization, Centralized and Distributed Database, Security, Concurrency and Recovery in Centralized and Distributed Database Systems (need for recovery), Object Oriented Database Management Systems (Concepts, Composite objects, Integration with RDBMS applications), ORACLE (in memory database).
Unit – III :
Display systems (current date & time), Input devices (graphics tablet), 2D Geometry (geometry for 2 dimensions), Graphic operations (primary operations), 3D Graphics (basics, 3D modelling), Animation (rapid display of a sequence), Graphic standard (GKS, PHIGS, SRGK) Applications. Concepts (concepts related to the subject), Storage Devices (USB, HDD, CD), Input Tools (OLAP), Authoring Tools, Application (various uses), Files (storage).
Unit – IV :
Programming language concepts (organizations, computability), paradigms and models. Data : Data types (int, float, char), Operators (+, -,%, *, /), Expressions (a+b*c/2), Assignment. Flow of Control (nested loops). Control structures, I / O statements, User – defined and built – in functions, Parameter passing (call by value & call by reference).
Principles (laws of programming), classes (set of objects), inheritance (ability of one class to be inherited in more than one form), class hierarchies, polymorphism (ability of a class to be accessed in more than one form), dynamic binding, reference semantics (implementation). Lists (distribution of elements in an arranged manner), types and polymorphisms (ability of a class to be accessed in more than one form), higher order functions (functions that return other functions), lazy evaluation (call-by-need), equations and pattern matching (introduction).
Unit – V :
Analog and Digital transmission (introduction & differences between analog & digital), Asynchronous and Synchronous transmission (ATM, STM), Transmission media (wires & cables), Multiplexing (MUX) & Concentration (saturation), Switching techniques (multiple paths linking sender & receiver). Topologies (bus, ring, star), Networking Devices (router), OSI Reference Model (Open System Interface), Protocols for : 1). Data link layer (1st layer) 2). Network layer (2nd layer) Transport layer (3rd layer), TCP / IP (transfer control/internet protocols), Networks security (measures to be taken ), Network administration (managing of network).
Unit – VI :
Sorting and Searching Algorithms (binary search, bubble sort, quick sort, heap sort, interpolation), Asymptotic notations-big ohm (Big O), omega and theta (various notations). Average case analysis of simple programs (finding of a maximum of n elements). Recursion & its systematic removal.
Design of Algorithms like Divide and Conquer (multi-branch recursion), Greedy method (general method), Dynamic programming (valid expression programming), Back tracking (for finding all solutions), Branch and Bound (for finding solutions of various optimizing problems). Lower bound theory (stack overflow), Non – deterministic algorithm – Non – deterministic programming constructs. Simple non-deterministic programs (various choice-points). NP – hard & NP – complete problems (full solutions).
Unit – VII :
Object (identifiable entity with some characteristics & behaviour), messages (information regarding system), classes (collection of objects), encapsulation (wrapping up of data into a single unit), inheritance (ability of one class to be inherited in more than one form), polymorphism (ability of a class to be inherited in more than one form), aggregation (association, composition), abstract classes (virtually defined characteristics), generalization as extension and restriction. Object oriented design (OOPS). Multiple inheritance (deriving a class from more than one base class), metadata (data about data).
HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language), DHTML (Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language), XML (Extensible Markup Language), Servlets (used for extending the capabilities of a server), Applets (small application written in java).
Unit – VIII :
Software development models (waterfall model), Requirement analysis and specifications, Software design, Programming techniques and tools, Software validation and quality assurance techniques, Software maintenance and advanced concepts, Software management.
Unit – IX :
Introduction, Memory management (virtual & cache memory), Support for concurrent process, Scheduling, System deadlock (check-mate situation), Multiprogramming system (multitasking), I/O management, Distributed operating systems, Study of Unix and Windows NT.
Unit – X :
Definitions, AI approach for solving problems (motivational/effective approach). Automated Reasoning with prepositional logic and predicate logic-fundamental proof procedure, refutation, resolution (pixels), refinements to resolution (ordering / pruning / restriction strategies). State space representation of problems (1st order differential equations), bounding functions, breadth first (BFS), depth first (DFS), A, A*, AO*, etc. Performance comparison of various search techniques. Frames (introduction), scripts (written texts), semantic nets (frame network), production systems, procedural representations (elaborated step by step). Prolog programming (high level programming). Components of an expert system (main features that should be kept in mind), Knowledge representation (KR) and Acquisition techniques (logics in artificial intelligence), Building expert system and Shell (outer layer). RTNs, ATNs, Parsing of Ambiguous CFGs. Tree Adjoining Grammars ( TAGs ). Systems approach to planning (introduction), Designing (creating a software), Development (changes), Implementation and Evaluation of MIS (introduction). Decision-making processes, evaluation of DSS (decision support system), Group decision support system and case studies (elaborated in words), Adaptive design approach to DSS development (introduction in the different ways), Cognitive style in DSS, Integrating expert and Decision support systems (managing a good customer satisfying software).
UGC NET Computer Science PAPER 3(b)
Elective – I :
Theory of Computation : Formal language (introduction), Need for formal computational models (why is it necessary? ), Non-computational problems (problems facing problems), diagonal argument & Russel’s paradox (introduction).
Deterministic Finite Automaton ( DFA ), Non – deterministic Finite Automaton ( NFA ), Regular languages & regular sets (set theory), Equivalence of DFA and NFA (differences & introduction). Minimizing the number of states of a DFA (DFA Minimization). Non-regular languages (Theory of automata), Pumping lemma (computability theory).
Pushdown Automaton ( PDA ), Deterministic Pushdown Automaton ( DPDA ), Non – equilvalence of PDA and DPDA (introduction & differences).
Context free Grammars (CFG): Greibach Normal Form ( GNF ) and Chomsky Normal Form ( CNF ) (conversion), Ambiguity (definition), Parse Tree Representation of Derivations (tree sysem). Equivalence of PDA’s and CFG’s (context free grammar). Parsing techniques for parsing of general CFG’s – Early’s, Cook – Kassami-Younger ( CKY ), and Tomita’s parsing (introduction).
Linear Bounded Automata ( LBA ) : Power of LBA Closure properties (introduction). Turing Machine ( TM ) One tape, (Melay & Moore machine) multitape (definition). The notions of time and space complexity in terms of TM (introduction). Construction of TM for simple problems (numericals). Computational complexity (definition).
Chomsky Hierarchy of languages (CNF introduction) : Recursive and recursively-enumerable languages (differences).
Elective – II :
Models for Information Channel : Discrete Memoryless Channel (DMC), Binary Symmetric Channel (BSC), Burst Channel (BC), Bit-error rates (BER). Probability (definition), Entropy (definition) & Shannon’s measure of information (introduction). Mutual information (information shared amonst everyone). Channel capacity theorem (introduction to the theorem). Rate and optimality of Information transmission (introduction).
Variable Length Codes : Prefix Codes (introduction), Huffmann Codes (definition), Lempel-Ziev (LZ) Codes. Optirnality of these codes (Information content of these codes).
Error Correcting and Detecting Codes : Finite fields (definition), Hamming distance (introduction), Bounds of codes (introduction), Linear (Parity Check) codes, Parity check matrix (PCM), Generator matrix (matrix form of pixels), Decoding of linear codes (introduction), Hamming codes (definitions).
Image Processing : Image Registration, Spatial Fourier Transforms, Discrete Spatial (2 dimensional) Fourier Transforms (introduction), Restoration (definition), Lossy Compression of images (pictures).
Elective – III :
Linear Programming Problem ( LPP ) in the standard form (different approaches to them), LPP in Canonical form (introduction). Conversion of LPP in Standard form to LPP in Canonical form (normal form or standard form). Simplex-Prevention of cyclic (computations) in Simplex and Tableau (introduction & application) , Big-M method (numericals), dual simplex and revised simplex (theory & numericals).
Complexity of simplex algorithm (applications). Exponential behaviour of simplex (introduction).
Ellipsoid method and Karmakar’s method for solving LPPs (introduction). Solving simple LPPs through these methods (linear programming models). Comparison of complexity of these methods (introduction).
Shortest Path Problems : Dijkstra’s and Moore’s method (algorithm & numericals). Complexity (definition).
Elective – IV :
Neural Networks : Perceptron model (multi layer perception), Linear separability and XOR problem (back propagation in neural network). Two and three layered neural nets (MLF & ANN), Back Propagation – Convergence (definition), Hopfield nets (definition), Neural net learning applications (uses & advantages).
Fuzzy Systems : Definition of a Fuzzy set (introduction), Fuzzy relations (generalized classical relations), Fuzzy functions (generalized classical functions), Fuzzy measures (introduction), Fuzzy reasoning (introdution), Applications of Fuzzy systems (uses of the system).
Elective – V :
Unix : Operating System (a case study), Structure of Unix Operating System (introduction), Unix Commands, Interfacing with Unix (introduction), Editors and Compilers for Unix (used to edit and guide the program), LEX and YACC (yet another compiler to compile), File system (introduction), System calls (basic needs), Filters (program that accepts input), Shell programming (shell script).
Windows : Windows environment (introduction & need), Unicode (one bit code), Documents and Views (introduction), Drawing in a window (methods & functions), Message handling (programming), Scrolling and Splitting views (view interchange), Docking toolbars and Status bars (differences), Common dialogs and Controls (definitions), Multithreading (introduction), OLE (object linking & embedding), Active X controls (introduction), ATL (active template library), Database access (introduction), Network programming (advantages & disadvantages).