# Calorific Value Computation

May 19 • Notes • 1497 Views • 3 Comments on Calorific Value Computation

Calorific Value Computation Based on Ultimate Analysis data

DETERMINING HEATING VALUES OF FUELS:-

The heating values of a fuel can be determined either from chemical analysis or by burning a sample in a calorimeter.

In the former method the calculation is based on an ultimate analysis. It reduces the fuel to its elementary constituents of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen etc.

The proximate analysis determines the percentages of moisture and carbon.

The ultimate analysis when resolves the fuel into its elementary constituents doesn’t reveal how they combine in the fuel. It is given on both moist and dry fuel basis.

When an analysis is given on a moist fuel it is converted to dry basis by dividing the percentage of various constituents by one minus the percentage of moisture.

CALCULATION FROM AN ULTIMATE ANALYSIS

The most commonly used formula is the DULONG’S FORMULA.

Heat units in B.t.u per pound of dry fuel=

14600C+62000(H-O/8)+4000S

Where C is carbon,
H is hydrogen,
O is oxygen and
S is sulphur

Heating value per pound of dry coal=

14600x 0.08445+62000(0.0425-0.0304/8)+4000×0.0091

= 14765 B.t.u

PROXIMATE ANALYSIS:-

This method gives a satisfactory results. It may be made on a moist or dry basis. The method of converting from a moist to a dry basis is same as that of ultimate analysis.

CALORIMETRY:-

To compute the efficiency of a boiler the heating value is determined with the help of a fuel calorimeter. In this apparatus the fuel is burned and the heat generated is absorbed by water.

The calorimeter which gives the best results is M.PIERRE.MAHLER.

If the result is not correct we use the PFAUNDLER’S METHOD.

It can be expressed as

C=N[R+(R’-R/T’-T)(T”-T)]

Where C= correction in degree centigrade

N= number of intervals over which the correction is made

T= average temperature for the initial radiation

T’=average temperature for the final radiation

T”=average temperature over period of combustion

NUMERICALS:-

EXAMPLE 1. ASSUME A BLAST FURNACE GAS, THE ANALYSIS OF WHICH IN PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT IS OXYGEN=2.7, CARBON MONOXIDE=19.5, CARBON DIOXIDE=18.7, NITROGEN= 59.1.

Sol:- Here the only combustible gas is the carbon monoxide and the heat value will be

0.195 x 4450 = 867.75 B.t.u per pound

The total volume of air required to burn one pound of this gas will be

0.195 x 30.6 = 5.967 cubic feet

EXAMPLE 2. ASSUME A NATURAL GAS THE ANALYSIS OF WHICH IN PERCENTAGE BY VOLUME IS OXYGEN= 0.40, CARBON MONOXIDE= 0.95, CARBON DIOXIDE= 0.34, OLEFIANT GAS(C2H4)= 0.66, ETHANE(C2H6)=3.55, MARSH GAS(CH4)= 72.15 AND HYDROGEN= 21.95.

Sol:- All except oxygen and carbon dioxide are combustible and the heat per cubic foot will be

From CO= 0.0095 x 347= 3.30

C2H4= 0.0066 x 1675= 11.05

C2H6= 0.0355 x 1862= 66.10

CH4= 0.7215 x 1050= 757.58

H= 0.2195 x 349= 76.61

B.t.u per cubic foot= 414.64

The total air required for combustion of one cubic foot of the gas will be

CO= 0.0095 x 2.39= 0.02

C2H4= 0.0066 x 14.33= 0.09

C2H6= 0.0355 x 16.74= 0.59

CH4= 0.7215 x 9.57= 6.90

H= 0.2195 x 2.41= 0.53

### 3 Responses to Calorific Value Computation

1. Dinesh says:

These concept are used in many area, and the measures which you have presented here will be useful at least once in their life time

2. patlakshi Jha says:

To know more about the calorific value and computation this article fits best . This contains detailed information about the calorific value and computation.

3. Rachita Mishra says:

interesting article which is about The amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a material or fuel. Measured in units of energy per amount of material, wich can get from calorific value. The amount of energy available from an item of food when digested, mostly from carbohydrates and fats.