Carbonization

Apr 27 • General • 2233 Views • No Comments on Carbonization

CARBONIZATION

CARBONIZATION AT A GLANCE

Carbonization is the term which means destructive distillation of coal which is done in the absence air in order to obtain coke and other fractions having greater percentage of carbon than the original material.

INTRODUCTION

It is defined as the conversion of organic matter into carbon or the residues containing carbon through the process of pyrolysis or destructive distillation.In the organic chemistry it is referred as the generation of coal gas or coal tar from raw coal materials.It is also applied to the pyrolysis of coal to produce coke and charcoal etc.

The three major factors which affects the carbonization process

1.moisture content of wood at the time of carbonization
2.type of carbonizing equipment used
3.care with which the process is carried out

WHAT HAPPENS DURING CARBONIZATION

During the carbonization process the wood is heated in the closed vessel away from the oxygen of the air or else the wood can be burnt into ashes.Without oxygen the wood is forced to decompose into main substance charcoal,a black porous solid with elemental carbon.Other remaining constituents are ash from 0.5-6% depending upon the type of wood,amount of bark,contamination of earth,sand etc.The liquid and gaseous products which are produced may be collected from the vapours driven off  if the charcoal is made to retort. The products other than charcoal are referred as the by-products.

STAGES OF CARBONIZATION

1.At 20 to 110°C

The wood absorbs heat as it is dried giving off the moisture as water vapour.

2.At 110 to 270°C

The final traces of the water are given off and the wood starts to decompose by giving off carbon monoxide,carbon dioxide,acetic acid,methanol etc.

3. At 270 to 290°C

This is the point at which the exothermic decomposition takes place.

4.At 290 to 400°C

As the breakdown of the wood continues the vapours given off consists of the combustible gases like carbon monoxide,hydrogen,methane along with carbon dioxide..

5.At 400 t0 500°C

The transformation of the wood to charcoal is completed.

COMPLEXITY OF CARBONIZATION

As the carbonization is a pyrolytic process,it is considered as a complex process in which many reactions such as dehydrogentation,condensation,hydrogen transfer and isomerization takes place one after the other.

 APPLICATIONS

1.COKE

Carbonization is a type of pyrolysis for getting maximum solid products.The most common application of it is the production of coke which can be used in the house hold fuel without generating pollution

2.ACTIVE COAL

Active coal generation is possible by heated rotary kilns.

carbonization

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1.HOW IS THE HEAT WHICH IS EVOLVED IN THE CARBONIZATION PROCESS IS UTILISED??

The exothermic heat of the process would be captured together with the heat produced by burning off-gas and liquid by-products and this in total would be sufficient to dry out the residual moisture in the wood, raise it to spontaneous pyrolysis temperature and then heat it to a temperature sufficient to drive-off residual tars.

2.WHAT ARE THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN IT?

As the carbonization is a pyrolytic process,it is considered as a complex process in which many reactions such as dehydrogentation,condensation,hydrogen transfer and isomerization takes place one after the other.

3.WHICH GASES ARE EVOLVED IN THE REACTION??

carbon monoxide,carbon dioxide etc

4.DEFINE CARBONIZATION

It is defined as the conversion of organic matter into carbon or the residues containing carbon through the process of pyrolysis or destructive distillation.In the organic chemistry it is referred as the generation of coal gas or coal tar from raw coal materials.It is also applied to the pyrolysis of coal to produce coke and charcoal etc.

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