Sampling is the process of converting continuous signal to discrete form. Ex- Conversion of a sound wave into sequence of samples. A sample denotes a set of values at a point in time and/or space. A sampler is a subsystem that extracts samples from a continuous signal. Its application includes audio sampling, sampling rate, quantization, speech sampling, video sampling. Also there are other types of sampling such as Oversampling, Undersampling, Complexsampling.
Concept of Sampling And its Techniques
After the research is conducted ,the data collected from it is then analysed. The analysis of the data is done by the technique of sampling. Before understanding the process of sampling there are some terms related to it that should be known like :
Sampling Element– it is the unit about which the information needs to be collected by the researchers for the purpose of analysis and then the action is taken for it eg: respondents, families, organizations, etc.
Population– it is the set of all the potential respondents in a particular geographical region.
Sampling frame– It is the subset of the population that is being targeted and from where the researchers can select the sample data for carrying out the research process.
Sampling unit– it is group of the individual respondents who can be selected in a single step.
Factors affecting sample size determination
- One of the important factor while determining the size of the sample is the number of centers ,which means on the assumption that they are dealing with one set of the respondents. For eg. If the data is analyzed individually for different geographical areas then the minimum size of the sample is necessary for each area or the center.
- In a questionnaire there are different varities of variables that are used in it which require formula that is necessary for each variable. For this the easy way is to take a maximum sample size that is calculated for any one major variable in the questionnaire.
- The analysts sometimes require to analyze more than one segment at a same time, such difficulty can be solved if the analysis is planned before conducting the study.
- The design of the sample must be done only by keeping the time ang budget constraints in mind and before finalizing the sample plan.
Advantages of Sampling
- Sampling is more cheap than the traditional census survey
- As the magnitude of operation in sample survey is too small therefore both execution and the analysis of the result can be carried out faster than any other method.
- Sampling creates a result that leads to the growth in the economy because in the sampling process only a small staff is used to perform the survey and tabulate the results from the survey data
- A sampling survey method helps the researcher to collect the more detailed form of the information which is very difficult to collect when the census survey is performed.
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