GATE Chemistry Syllabus
GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test for Engineering) is one of the toughest all India Examination that basically test the comprehensive understanding of various undergraduate subjects in Engineering and Technology. It has been known for testing the engineering basics in a smart way.GATE Score can be of great help like it can be used to get admissions to various Post-graduate programmes in Indian Higher Education Institutes that too with financial help provided by MHRD and other government agencies.
Chemistry is the science which deals with the characteristics,structure and composition of substances and also the changes they went through and the energy that is being set free or absorbed during these processes.So chemistry is not related to the subatomic domain but with the characteristics of atoms and laws governing their combinations.The great challenge is the development of a coherent explanation of the complex behavior of the materials.Also concerned with the use of natural substances and generation of artificial ones.Those who continue in particular areas interact with others with same interests and over a time a group of chemists with their particular research interests found a region of specialization like organic,inorganic,physical and analytical chemistry.
General Aptitute(GA)-Multiple choice test
- This Paper Consists of Verbal Ability: English grammar, verbal analogies, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction,Sentence completion,Word groups.
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY–Deals with the detail analysis of microscopic,atomic,subatomic and particulate phenomenon in chemical systems using laws and fundamentals of physics.
- Structure:It refers to molecular geometry,crystal structure and electronic arrangement of molecules.It include topics- Quantum theory: principles and techniques; harmonic oscillator, applications to a particle in a box, hydrogen atom and rigid rotor; molecular orbital theories and valence bond, Hückel approximation; approximate techniques: perturbation and variation; symmetry, point groups; rotational, vibrational, NMR, electronic and ESR spectroscopy.
- Equilibrium:It refers to the condition in which both the reactants and products are present at such concentrations which do not intend to change with time.It include topics– Kinetic theory of gases; First law of thermodynamics, energy,heat and work; second law of thermodynamics and entropy; absolute entropy and third law; free energy; partial molar quantities; non-ideal and ideal solutions; phase transformation: phase rule and phase diagrams – one, two, and three component systems; activity coefficient, activity , fugacity coefficient and fugacity ; chemical equilibrium, response of chemical equilibrium to pressure and temperature; colligative properties; thermodynamics of electrochemical cells; ; Debye-Hückel theory; standard electrode potentials: applications – corrosion and energy conversion; molecular partition function (translational, vibrational, rotational and electronic).
- Kinetics: Deals with detail analysis of rate of chemical processes.It include topics- Temperature dependence of chemical reactions, Rates of chemical reactions; elementary, consecutive, and parallel reactions; steady state approximation; theories of reaction rates – relaxation kinetics ,collision and transition state theory, kinetics of photo chemical reactions and free radical polymerization, adsorption isotherms and heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous catalysis.
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY–Deals with detail analysis of producing and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compunds.
- Main group elements: Elements in group whose lightest members are presented by helium,lithium etc.It include topics- General characteristics, structure, allotropes and reactions of simple and industrially important compounds: boranes, silicones, carboranes, silicates, boron nitride, borazines and phosphazenes. Oxides, hydrides and oxoacids of pnictogens (P, N), chalcogens (Se, S & Te) and halogens, pseudo halogens, xenon compounds and interhalogen compounds.Shapes of molecules and hard- soft acid base concept. Structure and Bonding (VBT) of Al, Si,B, P,N, S, Cl compounds. Allotropes of carbon: diamond,graphite, C60. Synthesis and reactivity of inorganic polymers of P and Si.
- Transition Elements: Elements that have a half filled d or f shell in any common oxidation state.It include topics- General characteristics of f and d block elements; coordination chemistry: structure and isomerism, theories of metal- ligand bonding (LFT and CFT), stability, mechanisms of substitution and electron transfer reactions of coordination complexes. Electronic spectra and magnetic properties of transition metal complexes, actinides and lanthanides . Metal carbonyls, metal- metal bonds and metal atom clusters, metallocenes; transition metal complexes with bonds to hydrogen, alkenes, alkyls and arenes; metal carbenes; use of organometallic compounds as catalysts in organic synthesis. Bioinorganic chemistry of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Co,Cu, Zn and Mo.
- Solids:It refers to material chemistry.It include topics- Crystal systems and lattices, crystal packing ,miller planes, crystal defects; Bragg’s Law, band theory, ionic crystals, metals and semiconductors, Different structures of AX2, AX, ABX3 compounds, spinels.
- Instrumental methods of analysis: Analysis done by instrumentation techniques.It include topics- Atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy including ICP-AES, UV- visible spectrophotometry, mass, NMR, Mossbauer spectroscopy (Fe and Sn), ESR spectroscopy, chromatography including HPCL and GC and electro-analytical methods (cyclic voltammetry ,Coulometry, polarography – amperometry, and ion selective electrodes).
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY–It deals with scientific analysis of the structure,characteristics and organic compunds reaction.
- Stereochemistry: Detail Study of the comparative arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules.It include topics-Chirality of organic molecules without or with chiral centres. Specification of configuration in compounds having one or more stereogeniccentres. Enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, faces and groups. Stereospecific and stereoselective synthesis. Conformational analysis of cyclic and acyclic compounds. Geometrical isomerism. Configurational and conformational effects on reactivity and specificity/Selectivity.
- Reaction mechanism: It refers to elementary reactions because of which total chemical change occurs.It include topics- Methods of determining reaction mechanisms. electrophilic and Nucleophilic substitutions and additions to multiple bonds. Elimination reactions. Reactive intermediates- carbocations, , carbenes, nitrenes, carboanions, arynes, free radicals. Molecular rearrangements involving electron deficient atoms.
- Organic synthesis: It deals with the production of organic compounds by the help of organic reactions.It include topics- reactions, Synthesis mechanisms and selectivity involving the following- alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, arenes, phenols, ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, nitro compounds, halides and amines. Use of compounds of Li, Mg, Cu, B and Si in organic synthesis. Concepts in multistep synthesis- retrosynthetic analysis, disconnections, synthons, synthetic equivalents, reactivity umpolung, protection ,selectivity and deprotection of functional groups.
- Pericyclic reactions:Type of organic reaction where the transition condition of the molecule has a cyclic geometry.It include topics- cyclo addition, Electrocyclic and sigmatropic reactions. Orbital correlation, PMO and FMO treatments.
- Photochemistry: Deals with the detail analysis of chemical reactions which progress with the absorption of light by atoms and molecules. It include topics-Basic principles. Photochemistry of carbonyl compounds, alkenes and arenes. Photoreduction and photooxidation. Di-π- methane rearrangement, Barton reaction.
- Heterocyclic compounds: Cyclic Compund which has atoms that consists of two unlike elements as its ring member.It include topics- preparation, structure, properties and reactions of furan, pyrrole, thiophene, , indole ,pyridine and their derivatives.
- Biomolecules: Molecules generated by living organisms.It include topics- Structure, properties and reactions of di- and mono-saccharides, physicochemical properties of amino acids, structural features of proteins, chemical synthesis of peptides, nucleic acids, steroids, carotenoids, terpenoids and alkaloids.
- Spectroscopy: Deals with interactions between matter and radiated energy.It include topics-Applications and Principles of UV-visible, NMR, IR and Mass spectrometry in the determination of structures of organic molecules.