INSTRUMENTATION is a branch of physics which deals with measurement and control of variables in process industry,the instruments related to process variables and its calibration.The basic purpose of instrumentation is a process to obtain information related to the successful operation of the process.The growth of instrumentation is possible due to reliable instruments that can provide valuable information related to progress of process that may involve direct method of measurement or indirect method of measurement.Instrumentation is used to measure many parameters such as-temperature,pressure,viscosity,flow,density,current,frequency,voltage,inductance,capacitance,resistivity.
APPLICATION OF IR:
1.Night Vision-Night Vision is technology that provides us vision in total darkness and the improvement of vision in low light environment.The common application include night driving or flying,wildlife observation,sleep lab monitoring and research and rescue.A popular method for performing night vision is by near infrared illumination and here infrared light sources are used to augment the available ambient light for the conversion by the night vision devices such as-
i)Filtered incandescent lamps-A high power lamp covered by an infrared filter which is designed to pass the lamp’s near infrared radiation and block the visible light component.
ii)LED type illuminators-These device uses an array of standard infrared emitting LEDs.
2.Spectroscopy-It is a technique that uses the interaction of energy with matter to perform an analysis and the data obtained is called spectrum.Spectroscopy requires an energy source(a laser or radiation source) and a device for measuring change in the energy source after it has interacted with the sample(a spectrophotometer).Infrared spectroscopy is frequently used to identify materials and used to quantify the number of absorbing molecules.
3.Thermography-In thermography infrared radiation can be used to remotely determine the temperature/thermal energy emitted from an object.Since infrared radiation is emitted by all object based on their temperatures,therefore thermography allows us to see variations in temperature and named so. Thermographic camera produce images of invisible infrared or heat radiation and provide precise non-contact temperature maesurement capabilities.
4.Communication-Infrared is used for remote control of appliances,data transmission in short range among computer peripherals,In case of data transmission, infrared LEDs are used to emit infrared radiation which is focused by lens into a narrow beam and beam is modulated to encode the data.The receiver convert infrared to current and respond only to the rapidly pulsing signal and filters out slowly changing infrared radiation from ambient light.Infrared communication is useful for indoor use as it does not penetrate walls.
RELATED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Q1.What is instrumentation and what are the parameters measured?
Ans.-Instrumentation is defined as science of measurement and control of process variables.The parameters measured by instrumentation are-temperature,pressure,viscosity,flow,voltage,etc.
Q2.Why infrared communication is useful for indoor use?
Ans.-Infrared communication is useful for indoor use because infrared does not penetrate walls and so it does not interfere with other device in other rooms.
Q3.List the applications of IR?
Ans.-Application of IR is as follows-
Q4.Name the near infrared illumination devices?
Ans.-The Two near infrared illumination devices used are-
i)Filtered incandescent lamps
ii)LED type illuminators
Q5.Why Thermography is named so?
Ans.-We know that all objects emit infrared radiation based on their temperatures.The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature,therefore thermography allows us to see variation in temperature and hence named so.