JAVASCRIPT AND CSS

Jun 1 • Notes • 1352 Views • 3 Comments on JAVASCRIPT AND CSS

JAVASCRIPT   : 

INTRODUCTION TOJAVASCRIPTS:

  • JavaScript is a scripting language and it creates interactivity among HTML pages.
  • It is usually directly connected to the Html pages.
  • As JavaScript is an interpreted language, scripts execute without preliminary compilation.
  • JavaScript can also be called as a programming tool.
  • It is a scripting language that an HTML designer uses to efficiently and effectively create websites and web pages in an efficient way.
  • HTML elements can be read and written by java script.JavaScript can also change the topic of HTML elements.
  • A dynamic text can be added into an HTML page and java script can also validate data.

DATABASE INTEGRATION:

  • Data Base Integration provides its user a unique view of the data by combining all the data from different sources.
  • Data Base Integration is mainly used to share data and it can include both commercial and scientific fields.
  • It also refers to as Enterprise Information Integration.
  • It can be stated as (G, S, M) where ‘G’ stands for Global schema, ‘S’ stands for Source schema and ‘M’ for Mapping.
  • Data Base Integration System also includes queries and data log.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets):

It helps in displaying HTML elements .Cascading style sheets have improved the side effect of page load time. CSS provides a way to control the look and feel of our HTML documents in an organized and efficient manner. CSS helps to add new looks to the old HTML and completely restyles a website with only few changes to CSS code. It is faster because it has less data to transfer. Cascading Style Sheets also improve accessibility. It has advantages like easier in maintenance, faster loading and page to page consistency. It defines how HTML elements to be displayed. Syntax is

SELECTOR {PROPERTY: VALUE}

POSITIOINING OF STYLE SHEETS:

We can use CSS positioning, instead of using table(s) to layout a page. We can make a page more dynamic, by using the CSS positioning. Positioning is not compatible with all browsers, so while coding it is necessary to know our audience.

There are several types of positioning:

Normal Flow ,Static Positioning , Relative Positioning and Fixed Positioning

Normal Flow :

Normal Flow is the default behavior of a web browser. We do not have to specify this in our style sheet since it‘s the default one. With normal flow boxes will show up in the order that we placed them in our code, and each box level element is stacked on the next.

Static Positioning:

  • Static positioning is applied by the declaration position:static It places the element in the normal flow. Since normal flow is the default one it’s not necessary to explicitly use this where it’s useful is over-riding another rule of lower specify.

Relative Positioning:

  • As though it was in the normal flow, the browser first lays out the element. The element is then displaced by the amount specified by the left or right properties and the top or bottom properties.

Fixed Positioning :

  • Fixed positioning is a subcategory of absolute positioning. The only difference for a fixed positioned box is that the containing block is established by the browser window size. When a web page is scrolled a fixed element does not move as all other elements do. It’s calculated in the same way as absolute positioning with respect to containing blocks in that it pulls the positioned box out of the normal flow.

FORMS, FORM ELEMENTS AND CONTROL:

Interactivity between the user and web page takes place inside a form. Mostly an user input is captured inside a form. Html provides the <form> ……</form> tags and with the help of these an Html form is created to capture user input .Forms contain input elements like text fields, check boxes and radio buttons. Forms are used to pass data to a server. A form object can be referenced by its position in the array of forms contained by its document or by name. If only one form appears in the document it can be referenced as follows.

document.forms[0]

document.formname

The element array allows one to access any element within a form through a loop. Each element inside the form is stored in an array element inside elements [].

INTRODUCTION TO CGI:

  • CGI is Common Gateway Interface.
  • The information may be to and from the browser and server in a linear way.
  • A CGI is scripted programs that can run on a web server as well as in a Client-server model to deliver documents, texts and images for display.
  • It depends upon the server supports that on which forms foes the CGI scripts exist as it has many forms like Perl Scripts/C++ scripts, UNIX scripts.
  • CGI can basically run in two ways:- From an HTML Form and Direct URL reference.

INTRODUCTION TO PERL:

  • PERL (Practical Extraction and Report Language).
  • In the late 1980’s, Larry Wall a system administrator in NASA, have developed it for the first time, and specially designed it for processing text.
  • PERL is very easy to learn, if someone have basic idea of C or UNIX Shell.
  • It’s basically a general-purpose programming language originally developed for text manipulation and now a day’s used for a wide range of tasks which includes system administration, web development, network programming, GUI development, and etc.
  • Perl is licensed under GNU General Public License (GPL).
  • In 1987, Perl 1.0 was released.
  • Both procedural and object-oriented programmings are supported by Perl.
  • Unicode are supported by Perl.

 

INTRODUCTION TO PHP:

  • A Scripting language designed for developing web pages is termed as PHP.It was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in the year1995.
  • The PHP commands can be connected to HTML page directly for processing data.
  • PHP supports multiprocess programs.

INTRODUCTION TO ASP:

  • Active Server Pages ( ASP)  is used by various web pages having an extension name .asp
  • The use of ASP makes web pages more faster , robust and secured
  • The ASP pages are written in VB Script but other scripting engines can also be used.
  • ASP helps to read the data sent by the client browser and also send information to clients.
  • It can also be used to store variables that can be accessed by a single user.

COOKIES:

  • Cookies were originally developed by Netscape to give ‘memory’ to web servers and browsers.
  • Cookies are not the essential part of a website but it can provide some of the “little things” that can set our website apart from the rest.
  • Basically Cookies are small tidbits of information that we save on the client’s computer so that we can access them next time we visit the website.
  • Some of the uses of cookies are:-
  • It stores username/password information so that the user doesn’t have to log in every time they visit the website (“remember me” sign in).
  • It simplifies to remember the user’s name.
  • It keeps track of a user’s progress during a specified process.
  • It also remembers a user’s theme.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS :

QUE> WRITE SHORT NOTES ON CGI/PERL , JAVASCRIPT , PHP ,ASP ,CSS, DATABASE INTEGRATION , COOKIES  ?

ANS>  INTRODUCTION TO CGI:

  • CGI is Common Gateway Interface.
  • The information may be to and from the browser and server in a linear way.
  • A CGI is scripted programs that can run on a web server as well as in a Client-server model to deliver documents, texts and images for display.
  • It depends upon the server supports that on which forms foes the CGI scripts exist as it has many forms like Perl Scripts/C++ scripts, UNIX scripts.
  • CGI can basically run in two ways:- From an HTML Form and Direct URL reference.

INTRODUCTION TO PERL:

  • PERL (Practical Extraction and Report Language).
  • In the late 1980’s, Larry Wall a system administrator in NASA, have developed it for the first time, and specially designed it for processing text.
  • PERL is very easy to learn, if someone have basic idea of C or UNIX Shell.
  • It’s basically a general-purpose programming language originally developed for text manipulation and now a day’s used for a wide range of tasks which includes system administration, web development, network programming, GUI development, and etc.
  • Perl is licensed under GNU General Public License (GPL).
  • In 1987, Perl 1.0 was released.
  • Both procedural and object-oriented programmings are supported by Perl.
  • Unicode are supported by Perl.

INTRODUCTION TOJAVASCRIPTS:

  • JavaScript is a scripting language and it creates interactivity among HTML pages.
  • It is usually directly connected to the Html pages.
  • As JavaScript is an interpreted language, scripts execute without preliminary compilation.
  • JavaScript can also be called as a programming tool.
  • It is a scripting language that an HTML designer uses to efficiently and effectively create websites and web pages in an efficient way.
  • HTML elements can be read and written by java script.JavaScript can also change the topic of HTML elements.
  • A dynamic text can be added into an HTML page and java script can also validate data.

INTRODUCTION TO PHP:

  • A Scripting language designed for developing web pages is termed as PHP.It was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in the year1995.
  • The PHP commands can be connected to HTML page directly for processing data.
  • PHP supports multiprocess programs.

INTRODUCTION TO ASP:

  • Active Server Pages ( ASP)  is used by various web pages having an extension name .asp
  • The use of ASP makes web pages more faster , robust and secured
  • The ASP pages are written in VB Script but other scripting engines can also be used.
  • ASP helps to read the data sent by the client browser and also send information to clients.
  • It can also be used to store variables that can be accessed by a single user.

COOKIES:

  • Cookies were originally developed by Netscape to give ‘memory’ to web servers and browsers.
  • Cookies are not the essential part of a website but it can provide some of the “little things” that can set our website apart from the rest.
  • Basically Cookies are small tidbits of information that we save on the client’s computer so that we can access them next time we visit the website.
  • Some of the uses of cookies are:-
  • It stores username/password information so that the user doesn’t have to log in every time they visit the website (“remember me” sign in).
  • It simplifies to remember the user’s name.
  • It keeps track of a user’s progress during a specified process.
  • It also remembers a user’s theme.

DATABASE INTEGRATION:

  • Data Base Integration provides its user a unique view of the data by combining all the data from different sources.
  • Data Base Integration is mainly used to share data and it can include both commercial and scientific fields.
  • It also refers to as Enterprise Information Integration.
  • It can be stated as (G, S, M) where ‘G’ stands for Global schema, ‘S’ stands for Source schema and ‘M’ for Mapping.
  • Data Base Integration System also includes queries and data log.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets):

It helps in displaying HTML elements .Cascading style sheets have improved the side effect of page load time. CSS provides a way to control the look and feel of our HTML documents in an organized and efficient manner. CSS helps to add new looks to the old HTML and completely restyles a website with only few changes to CSS code. It is faster because it has less data to transfer. Cascading Style Sheets also improve accessibility. It has advantages like easier in maintenance, faster loading and page to page consistency. It defines how HTML elements to be displayed. Syntax is

SELECTOR {PROPERTY: VALUE}

QUE> NAME VARIOUS TYPES OF STYLE SHEET POSITIONING ?

ANS> There are several types of positioning:

Normal Flow ,Static Positioning , Relative Positioning and Fixed Positioning

Gate syllabus-

1. Gate syllabus for Computer science and Information Technology 2014

IES syllabus-

1. IES Syllabus for General Ability

 

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3 Responses to JAVASCRIPT AND CSS

  1. Mitali Panda says:

    Java the pure form of Object oriented promming, it has got excellent brief notes on CSS,PHP,ASP,Cookies. this post has given out a basic of java concepts. would be looking forward to get some more deeper thoughts on JAVA

  2. patlakshi says:

    This article gives the idea about the javascript and CSS . Both are important concepts in the field of computer science.

  3. Ritika says:

    This is a very important article as it closely examines the aspects of the JAVAscript, used in Database Integration & CSS!

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