Nanotechnology,the science of reducing material size,has empowered the world with minimum space and maximum utilization. Nanotechnology features all those skills which has reduced power consumption,thereby,saving energy. Nanotechnology has devised various materials,devices and other structures of the order of nano meters thus,making them compact and has enhanced their portability. Nanotechnology deals with working on molecular and atomic level and have engrossed the areas like organic chemistry ,molecular chemistry,semiconductor physics,surface chemistry etc. Even though,there had been enough advancement in the field of material sciences, Nanotechnology has always lead the scale.
How Nanotechnology came into light?
In archaeological investigation of Mesopotamia,shinning pots were found with silver nano coating. These pots reflected different colors when seen at different angles.
Root Cause leading to miniature size
Nanotechnology operates at molecular level or rather atomic level,replacing molecules by several million atoms of the order of nano meters. It uses two approaches either “top-down“,dividing molecules to atoms or “bottom-up“,assembling atoms to molecular level.
In India,recent researches has shown the following statistics:-
Molecular Nanotechnology, Nano Robotics, Nano Bio-Electronics, Nano Machines producing nano-systems etc are some of the domains that have been evolving over a period of years to give dimensions to the nano-technological explorations.
These comprise of semiconductor Nano particles like quantum dots,quantum well etc. of nano scale dimensions.Fast ion transport of nano materials leads to nano-ionics.
Various kinds of lithography techniques like-optical lithography, nano-imprint lithography,dip pen lithography,electron-beam lithography,X-ray lithography etc. are used for obtaining nano particles. Two microscopes that have been extensively used for scanning nano particles are-Atomic Force Microscope and Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
Current widespread usage
Nanotechnology has present usage in healthcare,electronics,cosmetics and other areas like sports.The best examples that had ever come across is Kajal and Homeopathic medicines.Along with that it is used in clothing,games and computers.
Nano photonics, a combination of photonics and nanotechnology,dealing with the behavior of light on nanometer scale and interaction among nano particles. Currently,work on nano-composites is also being done which has potential applications.
Researchers say that nano paticles induce skin aging.Also cases of lung diseases,heart diseases and neurological disorders have also came into light pointing towards nanofibers. To keep a control of such incidents,a regulatory committee has also been formulated by various countries.
Nanotechnology has been the greatest building block for health care,structural materials,electronics,automation etc. and will become a platform for the new cutting edge technologies to grow for better living of mankind.