About Solar Street Lights:
- Solar street lights are effective and efficient light sources in which power is fed with the help of Photo-voltaic Panels.
- They are generally mounted on the lighting structure.
- There is a Rechargeable battery, which is charged by photo voltaic panels.
- Then the charge of that battery is used to powers a fluorescent or Led Lamp during the night.
- There have sensors, through them solar panels turn on and turn off automatically by sensing outdoor light with the help of light source.
- They are designed to work at night.
- The Working Principle of Solar Street Light is very simple.
- Photo voltaic solar cells convert the radiation of sun light into electrical energy.
- This conversion takes place by the use of the semiconductor material of the device.
- This process of energy conversion is generally called the “Photo voltaic effect”.
- It is also known as solar cells, or “photo voltaic cells.”
- With the help of photo voltaic solar cells made of the principle effect of solar panels during the day.
- The received electrical energy stored in batteries.
- At night when the illumination reduced to 10lux.
- Then Solar cells board open the circuit voltage of about 4.5V.
- Then charge and discharge controller is used to detect movement of the voltage value.
- Charge and discharge controllers are generally used to protect the battery.
The main components of solar street light are shown in the figure:
- Solar Panel
- It is very important part of solar street lights.
- Their main work is to convert solar energy into electricity.
- There are 2 types of solar panel exists : Mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline.
- The Conversion rate of mono-crystalline solar panel is much higher than poly-crystalline.
- Lighting Fixture
- Latest solar street light used LED as lighting source, because it provides much higher Lumens with lower consumption of power.
- The energy consumption rate of LED fixture is at least 50% lower than HPS fixture.
- Rechargeable Battery
- The Rechargeable Battery stores the electricity from solar panel during the day and provides power to the fixture during night.
- There are generally 2 types of batteries used: a) Gel Cell Deep Cycle Battery and
b) Lead Acid Battery
- Controller is also very important part for solar street light.
- A controller is that circuit which decides when to switch on /off charging and lighting.
- Strong Poles are required to solar street lights because there are very heavy components are mounted on the top of the pole like
- Fixtures, Panels and sometime batteries.
- The operation cost is not so high.
- This is a pollution free source of producing Electricity.
- NO external wires are used. so chances of occurrence of accidents are minimized.
- The parts of of this system are easy to carried. so remote access is applicable.
- They require less maintenance.
- The starting setup cost is high.
- Risk of theft is also higher.
- Rechargeable batteries are required to be changed many times.
- Not works in cloudy and rainy days.
- Snow and moisture effects its working.
They are the used for lightning at nights.
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