Syllabus for UGC NET Environmental Education 2013.
UGC NET Environmental Education contains two question papers. UGC NET Environmental Education Paper 2 will contain 50 multiple choice questions carrying 100 marks and UGC NET Environmental Education Paper 3 will have two parts A & B.
Part A will have 10 short essay type questions each carrying 16 marks. Part B will be compulsory. The candidate will attempt one question from Part B which will carry 40 marks. UGC NET Environmental Education Paper 3 will be of 200 marks.
Definition of environmental science and its interrelationship with other sciences (nanotechnology etc) and agriculture (all the points related to the improvement of the quality of agriculture); Origin and evolution of the earth and its environs-atmosphere: hydrosphere (water bodies), Lithosphere (land) and biosphere (forests); Biogeochemical cycles (definitions); Components of environment – biotic, abiotic and social (living and non living); Weather and climate (case study); History and evolution of human settlement (structural type answers); Effect of various developmental activities on environment (hazard posed to the environment).
Basic ecological concepts – habitat ecology (aquatic vs land habitat), systems ecology (introduction), synecology (definition), autecology (definition); Ecosystem concept (introduction); Structure and functions of biotic and abiotic components (living and non-living components); Energy in ecosystems and environment (introduction); Energy exchange and productivity-food chains and food webs-ecological pyramids (food web and various chains followed by the components), nutrient cycles and recycle pathways (the three R’s); Population – characteristics and measurement (encouraging the study related to the threats posed by the population); Communities – habitats (living diversity), niches (definition), population dynamics (increment in population), species and individual in the ecosystem (introduction); Recent trends in ecology (case study); Types characteristic features, structure and function of forest, grassland, plantation, desert; Aquatic and agro-ecosystem; Ecological succession – types and causes.
Biodiversity concepts (introduction), levels and types (related to the concepts), changes in tune and space (threats), evolution (beginning), centres of origin of crops (definitions), species concept (introduction); Significance of biodiversity (major points); Plant genetic resources (photosynthesis), exploration and collection (introduction); Crop domestication (definition), plant introductions; Migration and utilization (shifting); IUCN clauses and concept of threatened and endangered species; Biogeography (definition); Principles of conservation of biological diversity in-situ and ex-situ (living and non-living). Causes of loss of biodiversity (threats posed): introduction of exotics and invasive plants (introduction of various plants and animals); Methods of conservation, role of national parks (consservation efforts for animals), wildlife sanctuaries (birds), biosphere reserves (wildlife conservation steps taken by the government); National and global conservation measures (introduction). Indian Biodiversity Act 2002; Biodiversity and economics with special reference to India; Biodiversity in relation to global environmental changes; Biodiversity hot spots in India and world; Biodiversity and life security.
Composition of air (components of other gases in air, air is a mixture of gases); Air pollution (sources and classification of major air pollutants); Smoke (major pollutant), smog (smoke +fog), photochemical smog (causes irritation in eyes) and SPM (suspended particulate matter); Methods of air pollution monitoring (introduction); Effects of air pollutants on crops (insecticides), vegetation (growth of plants), animals and human health (introduction); mitigation measures for combating air pollution (introduction); Factors affecting plant response to air pollution (effect on plants); Acid rain (rain which is responsible for the yellowing up of the Taj Mahal), physiological and biochemical effects of SO2, HF, PAN and O3 on vegetation (effect of these on the plants), toxicity symptoms on vegetation (insecticides and pesticides), defence mechanism against air pollutants in plants (introduction), sensitive and tolerant plant species to air pollutants (introduction). National and international laws and policies on air pollution (verdicts); Permissible limits of air pollutants in the residential, commercial and industrial areas (having propper pollution check up for the vehicles); Noise pollution-concept and effects (case study).
Soil and water pollution: sources and types of soil and water pollutants (causes and effects); Effects of pollutants on soil health and productivity (introduction); Radioactive pollutants (definitions), their life time and disposal (case study); Point and non-point sources of water pollution (introduction), major types of water pollutants (which pollute the most), their impacts on environment and agro-ecosystems (introduction); Pollution in fresh water bodies, ponds, lakes, rivers and wells (polluting effects of the pollutants polluting the water bodies). Effects of soil and water pollutants on crop plants (effect on the plants), animals, microorganism and human health; National and International laws and maximum permissible limits of soil and water pollutants (introduction); Biomagnification and its impact on loss of biodiversity (magnifying waste); Physical, chemical and biological properties of wastes (introduction); Effluent treatment processes for major industries viz. distilleries (effect on industries); paper and pulp (factories), sugar, sewage and other agro-industrial wastes (waste products); Resource, product recovery, recycling and value addition to wastes; Biodegradation and bioconversion of organic wastes (introduction and differences), composting (definition), landfills; Vermicomposting (definition), biogas (natural fertilizer). animal feed (food for animals). mushroom cultivation (definition) etc.; Use of sludge (introductin), flyash, effluents and other agro industrial wastes in agriculture; Microbial (related to m, chemical and phytoremediation processes (introduction); Microbiological and public health aspects of waste disposal (introduction); Heavy metal contamination of environments (hazards), source and sinks of heavy metals (introduction).
Climate change: Global warming and greenhouse effect (ozone layer depletion), sources and sinks of green house gases (introduction), major GHGs (green house gas), analytical techniques of monitoring greenhouse gases in atmosphere (various techniques involved); Global climate change – its history and future predictions (effect). Impact of climate change on agriculture (crops), forestry (forest resources), water resources (water bodies), sea level rise (rise in water level), livestock (definitions), fisheries (industries), coastal ecosystem (introduction) and dynamics and pests and diseases and overall ecological processes (introduction); Climate change and food security (definitions); Contribution of agriculture and forestry to climate change (introduction); International conventions on climate change (major participating); Stratospheric ozone layer depletion-effect of UV radiation on plants and human health (ozone layer protection should be important); Adaptation and mitigation strategies of climate change (introduction), global dimming agrobiological effects of CO2 fertilization on crops (effects on crops); Carbon sequestration and clean development mechanism (definition and differences).
Energy consumption pattern in urban and rural India (trainings given to the rural people); Types of renewable sources of energy (energy that can be replenished); Solar energy (energy from sun): concepts of heat and mass transfer (introduction); design of solar thermal system and their applications in heating (case study). cooling (definition). distillation (definition). drying (definition). dehydration etc. (definition), design of solar photovoltaic systems (introduction), power generation for rural electrification-water pumping (major points), solar ponds (definition); Wind energy for mechanical and electrical power generation (advantages of wind energy), types of wind mills (different types of windmills); Geothermal and tidal energy (definition); Biogas from animal and agricultural wastes (introduction), types of biogas plants (introduction), utilization of biogas for heating benefits), cooking lighting and power generation (introduction); Characteristics of biogas slurry and its utilization (introduction); Energy from biogas (definition); Liquid fuels from petrocrops (definition), energy plantation crops (definition); Concepts of producer gas (definition); characterization of materials for producer gas (introduction), types of gasifiers (introduction and categories); Animals draft power and its utilization in rural sector (introduction); Briquetting of agro-wastes for fuel (introduction); Potential of renewable energy sources in India (introduction), Integrated rural energy programme (teachings for the rural people); Causes of failure of biogas plants in rural India (reasons and the bad effects).
Natural resources of India (introduction): land (components), soil (components), water (definition) and forest (definition) and their conservation and management including wildlife; Effects of deforestation on soil erosion (hazards posed); Land degradation (definition); Environment and rural economy (introduction); Wasteland (land which is of no use): their extent, characteristics and reclamation (introduction); Soil and water conservation (definition), rain water harvesting and watershed management (plans for the water management techniques); Desertification and biological invasion (definition); Rain water harvesting (definition); Mineral resources (introduction): use and exploitation (definition), environmental effects of extracting (major effects) and using mineral resources (introduction); Disaster management (how to handle disasters): floods (definition), droughts (disaster), earthquakes (major disaster); Tsunami (definitions), cyclones (definitions) and landslides (definitions); Nuclear hazards (threats posed by nuclear products); Environmental impact assessment for physical (in physical state which can be changed), chemical (can not be changed), biological (definition) and socio-economic factors (EIA); Legislative implications of EIA (introduction), environmental impacts assessment and environmental auditing (case study); Major global environmental issues (introduction); Human population and environment (definition): population growth (definition), variation among nations (United Nations). Population explosion (major threat)- Family welfare programme (definition); World food resources (definitions); World food problems (major problems); Environment and human health (introduction); Environmental ethics (introdction): issues and possible solutions (major points); Environmental policies and laws in India (introduction); Public environmental awareness (definition); Human rights (definition); Role of information technology in environmental and human health (introduction); Industrial pollutants (definition); Sea weeds and their utilization in agar (introduction), alginic acid (hazards), carrageenan, agarose and agaropectin production (introduction); Impact of green revolution on the environments (various techniques).