WATER AND ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

Apr 27 • General • 2075 Views • 2 Comments on WATER AND ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

Water  is a colourless,  tasteless and  odourless. It is composed of oxygen and hydrogen. Water can dissolve energy naturally occurring substances on the earth. Because of its property water has been termed as “universal solvent”.

SOURCES OF WATER

Abundant supply of water are essential for the development of industry. Industry require water for the coling of products, process needs, sanitary and potable water supply. Some of the industry use large amount of water to produce food, paper, chemicals etc

When water is evaporated under the influence of sunlight, it changes from liquid to gaseous phase. The water condenses in clouds as the temperature drops in the upper atmosphere. As the water condense and falls to the ground, it absorbs gases from the environment. This causes acid rain.

 

IMPURITIES OF WATER

Water  impurities include dissolved and suspended solids. Calcium bicarbonate is a soluble salt. A solution of calcium bicarbonate is clear because calcium and bicarbonate are present as atomic sized ions which are not large enough to reflect light. Some soluble minerals impart color to the solution. Soluble ion salts produce pale yellow or green solution some copper salts from blue solution. Some substances like suspended solids are not completely soluble in water and are present as particles. These parti cles impart a visible turbidity to the water.

IMPURITIES COMMONLY FOUND IN WATER

Water normally contains many impurities and contaminants taken from its sorroundings. Inland water can contain :-

  • Dissolve organic compounds.
    Eg:- compounds of sodium, calcium.
  • Suspended organic compounds
    Eg:- clay, sand
  • Dissolved gases
    Eg:- oxygen, carbon dioxide
  • Microorganisms
    Eg:- bacteria, algae, fungi

IMPROVING WATER EFFECIENCY

–          Safeguard its license for operation.

–          Reduce purchasing,  treatment and discharge costs,

–          Avoid  disruption in production.

–          Demonstrate social responsibility.

HARDNESS OF WATER

Water becomes hard due to the presence of two elements ie., calcium and magnesium. Iron, Aluminium, Manganese are few elements that also makes water hard. When water absorbs CO2 acidic water is formed.

When CO2 combines with water it forms a weak solution of carbonic acid which reacts with limestone to produce calcium carbonate.

METHODS FOR TESTING HARDNESS OF WATER

The test is performed in water industry.

1)      The amount of calcium and magnesium in water is measured  and the results are expressed as milli grams per litre of calcium bicarbonate.

2)      Determine the content of calcium only.

 UNITS FOR MEASURING THE HARDNESS OF WATER

Unit
mekv/l
°dH (°dH)
°e
°f (°tH)
mg/l CaCO3
gpg CaCO3
1 mekv/l
1
2.805
3.51
5
50
2.924
1 °dH (°dH)
0.3536
1
1.25
1.78
17.8
1.042
1 °e
0.2852
0.8
1
1.43
14.3
0.833
1 °f (°tH)
0.2
0.561
0.702
1
10
0.585
1 mg/l CaCO3
0.02
0.0561
0.0702
0.1
1
0.0585
1 gpg CaCO3
0.342
0.9593
1.2004
1.71
17.1
1

 

EXPECTED QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

1) WHY WATER IS CALLED A “UNIVERSAL SOLVENT”?

ans:- Water  is a colourless,  tasteless and  odourless. It is composed of oxygen and hydrogen. Water can dissolve energy naturally occurring substances on the earth. Because of its property water has been termed as “universal solvent”.

2) WHY WATER IS USED IN INDUSTRY?

ans:- Abundant supply of water are essential for the development of industry. Industry require water for the coling of products, process needs, sanitary and potable water supply. Some of the industry use large amount of water to produce food, paper, chemicals etc

3) WHAT CAUSES ACID RAIN?

ans:- When water is evaporated under the influence of sunlight, it changes from liquid to gaseous phase. The water condenses in clouds as the temperature drops in the upper atmosphere. As the water condense and falls to the ground, it absorbs gases from the environment. This causes acid rain.

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2 Responses to WATER AND ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

  1. chetan pal says:

    water and its industrial applications

  2. chetan pal says:

    water and its industrial applications

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