 # DATA LINK LAYER ( REDUNDANCY ERROR DETECTION)

Jun 17 • General • 5142 Views • 7 Comments on DATA LINK LAYER ( REDUNDANCY ERROR DETECTION)

Redundancy

The main concept in the detection of error is redundancy, but to be able to detect or correct the errors some extra bits are needed and these bits are called the redundant bit that are added by the sender and removed by the receiver.

Error detection versus correction

In case of error detection one has to check whether an error has occurred or not the answer lies in a yes or no.

Whereas in case of error correction one needs to know the number of errors, location of errors, location from which the message has been received and also the error has to be fixed.

Forward error correction, retransmission

There are basically two main methods of error correction-:

1. Forward error correction method
2. Correction by retransmission

The forward error correction method is one in which the receiver tries to guess the message using the redundant bit.

Where as the correction by retransmission  the receiver detects the occurrence of the error and asks the sender to resend the information.

Modular arithmetic

In the modular arithmetic we use the integer having the range of 0 to n-1.

For example –

In case of modulo 2 arithmetic

• N is 2
• Use of 0 and 1 can be done only
• Implementation in xor only

Block coding

In case of block coding message is divided into blocks where each block is of k bit size called as the data bit, here r is called as the redundant bit which is added to each block and here the resulting n bit blocks are called the code words where n= k+r.

Error detection by the block coding method

The detection  of the error through the block coding can be done if and only if the following conditions can be achieved-:

1. The receiver is able to find the list of all the valid code word.
2. The original code word has been converted to an invalid code word.

Error correction using block coding

For error correction by this method the receiver needs to find the original code word that has been sent.

Hamming distance

The hamming distance refers to the distance between two words of same size which is the difference between the corresponding bits.

As we know that any coding scheme needs the basic three parameters -:

1. Code word size(n)
2. Data word size (k)
3. Dmin

The hamming distance in the block code should be -:

Dmin=s+1

Minimum hamming distance

When dmin >s ,

Then dmin=2t+1.

Linear block code

Almost every block codes which is being used today belong to linear block code, basically a linear block code is one in which the x –or operation of two valid cross word creates another valid code .

Cyclic codes

These are the special linear block codes having extra property of that is if one crossword is shifted cyclically having left and right shift.

For eg- if 1011000 is cyclically having left shift then 1100010 is the result.

Cyclic redundancy check

It is known as the polynomial pole used in atm, hdlc ,lans.

It has two bits- D bit and the R bit, where D bit is called data bit and R bit is crc bit.

Polynomial

Polynomial method is thebest way to understand the cyclic codes and can be analyzed properly .

For eg- 1000011 can be represented as 1x^6+0x^5+0x^4+0x^3+0x^2+1x^1+1x^0.

ans- The Data Link Layer of OSI reference model  provides service of error detection and control to higher layers.

2.what is data link control protocol?

ans-:A unidirectional protocol with no flow or error control, where data frames are traveling in only one direction, from the sender to the reciever.

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