Jun 17 • General • 6580 Views • 7 Comments on DATA LINK LAYER ( REDUNDANCY ERROR DETECTION)



The main concept in the detection of error is redundancy, but to be able to detect or correct the errors some extra bits are needed and these bits are called the redundant bit that are added by the sender and removed by the receiver.

Error detection versus correction

In case of error detection one has to check whether an error has occurred or not the answer lies in a yes or no.

Whereas in case of error correction one needs to know the number of errors, location of errors, location from which the message has been received and also the error has to be fixed.

Forward error correction, retransmission

There are basically two main methods of error correction-:

  1. Forward error correction method
  2. Correction by retransmission

The forward error correction method is one in which the receiver tries to guess the message using the redundant bit.

Where as the correction by retransmission  the receiver detects the occurrence of the error and asks the sender to resend the information.

Modular arithmetic

In the modular arithmetic we use the integer having the range of 0 to n-1.

For example –

In case of modulo 2 arithmetic

  • N is 2
  • Use of 0 and 1 can be done only
  • Implementation in xor only

Block coding

In case of block coding message is divided into blocks where each block is of k bit size called as the data bit, here r is called as the redundant bit which is added to each block and here the resulting n bit blocks are called the code words where n= k+r.

  Error detection by the block coding method

The detection  of the error through the block coding can be done if and only if the following conditions can be achieved-:

  1. The receiver is able to find the list of all the valid code word.
  2. The original code word has been converted to an invalid code word.

Error correction using block coding

For error correction by this method the receiver needs to find the original code word that has been sent.

Hamming distance

The hamming distance refers to the distance between two words of same size which is the difference between the corresponding bits.

As we know that any coding scheme needs the basic three parameters -:

  1. Code word size(n)
  2. Data word size (k)
  3. Dmin

The hamming distance in the block code should be -:


Minimum hamming distance

When dmin >s ,

Then dmin=2t+1.

Linear block code

Almost every block codes which is being used today belong to linear block code, basically a linear block code is one in which the x –or operation of two valid cross word creates another valid code .

Cyclic codes

These are the special linear block codes having extra property of that is if one crossword is shifted cyclically having left and right shift.

For eg- if 1011000 is cyclically having left shift then 1100010 is the result.

Cyclic redundancy check

It is known as the polynomial pole used in atm, hdlc ,lans.

It has two bits- D bit and the R bit, where D bit is called data bit and R bit is crc bit.


Polynomial method is thebest way to understand the cyclic codes and can be analyzed properly .

For eg- 1000011 can be represented as 1x^6+0x^5+0x^4+0x^3+0x^2+1x^1+1x^0.

questions and answers

1.what is data link layer?

ans- The Data Link Layer of OSI reference model  provides service of error detection and control to higher layers.

2.what is data link control protocol?

ans-:A unidirectional protocol with no flow or error control, where data frames are traveling in only one direction, from the sender to the reciever.

GATE Syllabus-

1. Gate Syllabus for Electronics and Communication 2014

2.Gate Syllabus for Engineering Science 2014

IES Syllabus-

1. IES Syllabus for Electronics and Telecomm

2. IES Syllabus for General Ability



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  1. suriya prakash says:

    complex operations of network communication takes place in data link layer. this article helps to understand the functions of data link layer.

  2. patlakshi says:

    the post comprises about the data link layer redundancy and error detection. the post is very useful and one can get lot of information in this regard.

  3. Seetha Manoharan says:

    redundancy method is the best method for detecting error in data link layer. because it is hard to detect error in that layer.

  4. Madhan says:

    In network layer architecture Data Link Layer is the one that performs error detection and error correction. This article helps to know the data link layer and responsibilities of the layer.

  5. Deepshikha Bisaria says:

    Data Link Layer is a very important concept and the second layer in the TCP. It does various task and one of the major task is error detection and error correction done by various techniques like cyclic redundancy check, hamming technique and several other.

    This is very well written and composed article and provides good knowledge

  6. karishma Sahoo says:

    In 7-layer of OSI model, Data link layer is one of the important layer.
    The data link layer is responsible for encoding bits into packets prior to transmission and then decoding the packets back into bits at the destination.
    The data link layer is also responsible for logical link control, media access control, hardware addressing, error detection and handling and defining physical layer standards.
    It provides reliable data transfer by transmitting packets with the necessary synchronization, error control and flow control.
    Data link layer processing is faster than network layer processing because less analysis of the packet is required.

  7. Dinesh says:

    Data link layer is the more important and more functional layer in the network layers, because the error occur in this layer are very hard to detect

    for eg : data loss due to insufficient humming distance

    but his article clearly gives the idea and the types of error possibility in the data link layer

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