Jun 24 • General • 1438 Views • No Comments on FRAMES



A cyclic code is a  type of linear block code such as the right cyclic shift of any code word is the basic code word.


Framing is a technique that adds source and destination address into data packets with the necessary control signals it is of two types-:

  • Fixed size frames
  • Variable size frames

FIXED SIZE FRAMES-:If the data packets of the bit streams that are made into a frame is fixed then these types of frames are called fixed size frames.

VARIABLE SIZE FRAMES-: When the data packets to be added into a frame is of variable size and is not fixed then these types of frames are called variable size frames.


At the time of transmission of data’s   between two system there may be some disturbances due to the error and these disturbances create problems known as error, the different types of error are-

  • Content error
  • Flow error

Flow error- It basically denotes to the missing of blocks of data , when ever a data block is lost or delivered to a wrong destination then it is termed as flow error, again the flow error is subdivided into two errors-

  • Single burst error
  • Burst error

Single burst error- only 1 bit error data is found

Burst error- two or more data bit error is found.


  1. What is hamming distance?

Ans- the number of differences between two corresponding bits between two word is hamming distance

2.Differentiate between forward error correction and error correction by retransmission?

Ans-  In case of forward error correction method receiver tries to correct the corrupted codeword whereas in case of the retransmission method the corrupted message is discarded.

3.Name some functions performed by MAC?

ANS-: As it is  a part of data link layer it performs functions like networking, transmission of frames.

GATE Syllabus-

1. Gate syllabus for Electronics and Communication Engineering

IES syllabus-

1. IES Syllabus of Electronics and Telecomm

2. IES Syllabus for General Ability


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