Here I am enclosing, the National Movement in India from 1905 to 1920 which are frequently asked in the competetitive exams, so have a look….
Important National Movement in India: 1905-1920
- The Indian National Congress :- It was formed in 1885 by A. O. Hume, an Englishman and a retired civil servant. The first session was held in Bombay under W. C. Banerjee in 1885 where 72 delegates had attended it
- Partition of Bengal:- It was formedby Lord Curzon on Oct 16, 1905, through a royal Proclamation, reducing the old province of Bengal in size by creating East Bengal and Assam out of rest of Bengal.The motto of this was to set up a communal gulf between Hindus and Muslims.
- Swadeshi Movement (1905):- For this movement Lal, Bal, Pal, and Aurobindo Ghosh played the important role.INC took the Swadeshi call first at the Banaras Session, 1905 presided over by G. K. Gokhale.Bonfires of foreign goods were conducted at various places.
- Formation of Muslim League (1906) :- It was formed in 1906 under the leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk.It was a loyalist, communal and conservative political organization which was in favour of the partition of Bengal, and against the Swadeshi movement. It had demanded for special safeguards to its community and a separate electorate for Muslims.
- Demand for Swaraj :- In December 1906 at Calcutta, the INC under Dadabhai Naoroji adopted ‘Swaraj’ (Self-govt) as the goal of Indian people. Surat Session of Indian National Congress (1907):The INC had divided into two groups- The extremists and The moderates, at the Surat session in 1907. Extremists were led by Bal, Pal, Lal while the moderates by G. K. Gokhale.
- Indian Councils Act or Minto Morley Reforms (1909) – It called for a separate electorate for Muslims. It aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks and at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims to the Government’s side.
- Ghadar Party (1913) It was set up by Lala Hardayal, Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh Bhakna. The headqusters being set up at San Francisco.
- Home Rule Movement (1916) It was started by B. G. Tilak (April, 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and S. Subramania Iyer at Adyar, near Madras (Sept, 1916). The aim was to initiate a self government for India in the British Empire. Tilak had linked up the question of Swaraj with the demand for the formation of Linguistic States and education in vernacular language. He gave the slogan: Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it.
- Lucknow Pact (1916) This resulted in a war between Britain and Turkey leading to anti-British feelings among Muslims.The INC and the Muslim League agreed to this (Congress accepted the separate electorates and both jointly demanded for a representative government and dominion status for the country).
- August Declaration (1917) :- After the Lucknow Pact, a British policy was announced whose objective was to increase the association of Indians in every branch of the administration for progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British empire. This was known as the August Declaration.
- Rowlatt Act (March 18, 1919) :- This granted unbridled powers to the government to arrest and imprison suspects without trial for two years maximum. This law enabled the Government to suspend the right of Habeas Corpus, which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.
- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919) People were agitated over the arrest of Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal on April 10, 1919.On March 13, 1940, Sardar Udham Singh killed O’Dyer when the later was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall, London.
- Khilafat Movement (1920):- The Muslims were agitated by the treatment done with Turkey by the British in the treaty that followed the First World War. Two brothers, Mohd. Ali and Shaukat Ali started this movement.
- Non-cooperation Movement (1920) :-It was the first mass-based political movement under Gandhiji.Congress passed the resolution in its Calcutta session in Sept 1920.