Sample paper for biotechnology
1. (a) What are the characteristics of living organisms? 10marks
Ans: 1. Living things are highly organized, from the smallest part to the largest.
2. All living things have an ability to acquire materials and energy.
3. All living things have an ability to respond to their environment
4. All living things have an ability to reproduce.
5. All living things have an ability to adapt.
(b) Describe the important functions of proteins and Nucleic acids. 10 marks
Ans :Proteins : Proteins provide the basic structures for every organ system in your body, including muscles, bones, hair, skin, cartilages and circulatory systems. They also provide structures for enzymes which are organic compounds that serve as catalysts for many chemical reactions in your body, including converting food into energy.
Nucleic acid:- Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains genetic instructions that your cells use to develop and carry out biological functions. It stores information to construct proteins and other organic molecules to develop an organism. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) regulates what types of genes are expressed in you. It carries information from DNA to your cells’ ribosomes which are the sites for protein synthesis.
2.(a) Classify carbohydrates. 10 marks
Ans: Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides, are classified according to the number of single carbohydrate molecules in each chemical structure. Carbohydrate compounds having just one carbohydrate molecule are called monosaccharides; compounds with two carbohydrate molecules are called dissarcharides; and those compounds containing more than two carbohydrate molecules are named polysaccharides. All carbohydrates either are monosaccharides or can be hydrolyzed (broken down) into two or more monosaccharides.
(b) Give the general characterstics nomenclature and classification of enzymes. 10 marks
Ans: classification of enzymes:
Class 1. Oxidoreductases.
Class 2. Transferases.
Class 3. Hydrolases.
Class 4. Lyases
Class 5. Isomerases.
Class 6. Ligases.
3. Describe the process of: 20 marks
(b) Nitrogen fixation.
Ans: (a) The process of photosynthesis is conveniently divided into two parts: the energy-fixing reaction (also called the light reaction) and the carbon-fixing reaction (also called the light-independent reaction, or the dark reaction).
(b) Nitrogen Fixation:-Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen (N2) in the aymosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3). Atmospheric nitrogen or molecular nitrogen (N2) is relatively inert: it does not easily react with other chemicals to form new compounds. Fixation processes free up the nitrogen atoms from their diatomic form (N2) to be used in other Nitrogen fixation, natural and synthetic, is essential for all forms of life because nitrogen is required to biosynthesize basic building blocks of plants, animals and other life forms, e.g., nucleiotides for DNA and RNA and amino accid for proteins. Therefore nitrogen fixation is essential for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer. It is also an important process in the manufacture of explosives. Nitrogen fixation occurs naturally in the air by means of lightning.
4. Give the methods of control of micro-organisms. 20 marks
Ans:Regulation of gene expression is a complex process that can be controlled at several steps,including transcription, pre-mRNA splicing and export, mRNA stability, translation, protein modification, and protein half-life. Because transcriptional regulation often involves DNA-protein interactions, several techniques are used, including nuclear run-off assays, DNase I footprinting analysis, and mobility shift assays.
5. (a) Describe mitosis . 10 marks
Ans: Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two nuclei. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle-the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell. This accounts for approximately 10% of the cell cycle.
(b) Nucleic acid as genetic material : Give the evidence. 10 marks
Ans: Nucleic acids are long linear or circular macromolecules, either DNA or various types of RNA, that are composed of linked nucleotides. These molecules carry genetic information that directs all cellular functions.
6. Write note on Bioinformatics. 20 marks
Ans: Bioinformatics has become an important part of many areas of biology. In experimental molecular biology, bioinformatics techniques such as image and signal processing allow extraction of useful results from large amounts of raw data. In the field of genetics and genomics, it aids in sequencing and annotating genomes and their observed mutations. It plays a role in the textual mining of biological literature and the development of biological and gene ontologies to organize and query biological data. It plays a role in the analysis of gene and protein expression and regulation
7. What is the scope of Biotechnology ? 20 marks
Ans:Biotechnology may be as old as human civilization but modern biotechnology is less than three decades old. Traditional Biotechnology that led to the development of processes for producing products like yogurt, Vinegar, alcohol and cheese was entirely empirical and bereft of any understanding of the mechanisms that led to the product. There was no possibility of a deliberate design to produce a desired new product
8. How Biotechnology is applied in Agriculture ? 20 marks
Ans:Biotechnology is the application of scientific techniques to modify and improve plants, animals, and micr oorganisms to enhance their value. Agricultural bio technology is the area of biotechnology involving applications to agriculture. Agricultural biotechnology has been practiced for a long time, as people have sought to improve agriculturally important organisms by selection and breeding. An example of traditional agricultural bio technology is the development of disease-resistant wheat varieties by cross-breeding different wheat types until the desired disease resistance was present in a resulting new variety.