Solar Water Heating System & its Working Principle

Apr 17 • Science Notes • 5473 Views • No Comments on Solar Water Heating System & its Working Principle

Sun as an Energy Resource:

We are blessed with Solar Energy in abundance at no cost. The solar radiation,which is incident on the earth surface, can be utilized for the benefit of the society. One of the popular devices that utilizes the solar energy is Solar Water Heating System (SWHS).

Solar Energy from the Sun

Solar Energy from the Sun

Solar Water Heating System (SWHS) is not a new concept in India now. The technology is easily available in our country and in use in most of the mega cities.

Solar Water Heating System Salient Features:

  • Fuel Saving- A 100 litres capacity SWH can replace an electric geyser for residential use and saves 1500 units of electricity annually.
  • Beneficial for Environment- A SWH of 100 litres capacity can prevent emission of 1.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.
  • Total Life- 15 to 20 years approximately.
  • Costing- Rs.15000- 20,000 for a 100 litres capacity system and Rs.110-150 per installed litre for higher capacity systems.
  • Payback period- 3-4 years when electricity is replaced 4-5 years when furnace oil is replaced 5-6 years when coal is replaced.

Major Components:

  • Solar Collector, Its purpose is to collect solar energy
  • Insulated Tank, Its purpose is to store hot water
  • Supporting Stand
  • Connecting Pipes and Instrumentation, etc.

Working Principle of SWH:

  • The Sun rays fall on the Solar Collector. A black absorbing surface (absorber) inside the collector, which absorbs solar radiation and transfers the heat energy to water flowingBasic Working Principle of Solar Water Heating System through it. Heated water is collected in a tank which is insulated to prevent heat loss. Then Circulation of water from the tank through the collector and back to the tank continues automatically.
  • A Solar Water Heater consists of a Collector panel to collect solar energy and an Insulated Storage Tank to store hot water.


  • Water heating is one of the major use of solar energy, It is implemented for providing hot water for showers, dishwashers and clothes washers etc.
    Solar Water Heating System Application

    Application of SWHS

  • Solar Water Heating System (SWHS) can be used for Homes, Community Centers, Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Hotels, Dairy Plants, Swimming Pools, Canteens, Ashrams, Hostels, Industry etc.
  • Use of Solar Water Heater (SWH) can reduce electricity or fuel bills considerably.
  • Among all the solar energy devices available in the market, Solar Water Heater is found to be one of the most reliable and durable.
  • Solar Water Heater has longest warranty period of all other solar energy devices.
  • Solar Water Heater is known to has the fastest repayment of investment.

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Hot Water Cylinder

Advance Solar Water Heating System

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