TCP/IP questions along with answers
1. What is IP address?
Ans:- The 32 bits Internet address is that which defines a host or router.uniquely and universally on the Internet. The portion that identifies the network is of the IP address called the netid. The portion identifies the host or router on the network of the IP address that is called the hostid. An IP address defines connection to a network of a device.
2. Explain the three types of addresses in TCP/IP?
Ans:- Three types of addresses used by computers using the TCP/IP :
- Physical address,
- Internetwork address
- Port address.
The physical address, is the address as defined by its LAN or WAN of a node. The IP address defines a host on the Internet uniquely. the port address is an identifier which identifies a process on a host.
3. What is the function of routing table?
Ans:- Each host or router contains a routing table to route IP packets. In next hop routing the
packet makes only the address of the next hop which is listed in the routing table. All hosts on a network share one entry in the routing table in network specific routing in hostspecific in the routing table full IP address of a host is given routing. A router is assigned to receive packets with no match in the routing table in default routing.
4. What are the fields included in routing table?
Ans:- The routing table consist of seven fields: These are a mask, a address of destination, a address of next-hop, flags, reference count, use, and interface. The routing module applies the mask row by row, to the received address of destination till a match is found. Classless addressing requires geographical and hierarchical routing for preventing immense routing tables.
5. What is Fragmentation?
Ans:- It is the division of a datagram into smaller units to accommodate of a data link protocol’s MTU. The fields in the IP header which is related to fragmentation are the identification number, the flags fragmentation , and the offset fragmentation. The IP datagram header is consists of a fixed, 20- byte section and also a variable options section with a maximum of 40 bytes.
6. Explain the purpose of various layers?
Ans:- The physical layer coordinates the functions which is required for transmiting a bit stream over a physical medium. The data link layer is responsible to delive data units from one station to the next. The network layer is considered for responsible of the source-to-destination delivery of a packet across multiple network links. The transport layer is considered for responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of the entire message. The session layer maintains ,establishes, and synchronizes the interactions between communicating the devices. The presentation layer makes sure for interoperability between communicating devices through transformation of data to a mutually agreed-upon format. The application layer is considered for enabling the users to access the network.
7. Explain various types of connecting devices?
Ans:- There are 5 types of connecting devices: repeaters, hubs, bridges, routers, and switches. The Repeaters regenerate a signal at the physical layer. A hub is a multiport repeater. Bridges have the access for station addresses and can filter or forward a packet in networks. They operate at the data link and physical layers. Routers determine the path of a packet . They operate at the physical, datalink, and network layers. A 2- layer switch is a sophisticated bridge and a 3-layer switch is a sophisticated router.
8. What is Unicast, Multicast and Broad cast communication?
Ans:- Unicast communication is the sending a packet from one source to one destination. Multicast communication is the sending a packet to from one source to multiple destinations. Hosts by the same multicast address can either be on different networks or on the same network. Multicast addresses are usually used for conferencing purposes and information retrieval. Broadcast communication sending a packet from one source to all hosts on its network.
9. What is process-to-process communication?
Ans:- The IP is considered as for responsible of communication at the computer level. As IP is a network layer protocol, it delivers the message only to the computer of destination. This is an incomplete delivery. The message needs to be handed to the correct process. This is where a transport layer protocol like UDP takes over. UDP is responsible for delivering of the message to the appropriate process.
10. Explain buffering?
Ans:- TCP creates sending and also receiving buffers for each and every connection. TCP always uses a buffer to store the stream of data coming from the sending application program. The receiving TCP also buffers data when it arrives and also delivers the data to the application program.
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