Water in industry is used for cooling,transportation,washing and as a solvent.The principal industrial water users are-thermal and atomic power generation, chemical and petroleum plant, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, wood pulp and paper industry, machinery manufacture. Some industry that uses large amount produce commodities such as-food, paper, chemicals, refined petroleum or primary metals.
The major characteristics of industrial water use-(i) the volume of fresh water withdrawal, (ii)water consumption, (iii) water diversion-depend on water supply system in use.
1.Thermal and atomic power plant uses water in three ways-
i)Electricity Generation-Water is boiled to make steam and this steam gets cooled after it runs through turbine to produce electricity.It also uses water to keep the reactor core and used fuel rods cool.This plant withdraw and consume more water per unit of electricity produced.
ii)Fuel Extraction-Uranium is common fuel used in this plant and its processing such as mining,milling,enrichment require significant quantities of water.
iii)Waste Storage-Water-based storage pools are used to cool spent uranium fuel bundles after they are used in nuclear reactors.
2.Pulp and Paper Industry-
Water is associated with all the 3 stages of paper production-pulp making,pulp processing and paper board manufacturing and their associated activities cooking,bleaching and washing.This industry uses 17,000 gallons of water for every ton of pulp produced.
Q1.How is water used in thermal and atomic power plant?
Ans.-Water is used in following 3 ways-
Q2.What is the major and most important use of water in industry?
Ans.-The major use of water in industry is -in cooling towers where steam is cooled to move motor to generate electricity.
Q3. Why water is used as solvent in industry?
Ans.-Water is used as solvent because it can easily mix with any solution as it is an universal solvent.It increases density and composition of the solution.
Q4.What is meant by term Water Diversion?
Ans.-Water diversion means to divert water from it occurs naturally to place where people need it to be and thus attract new residents and industries and provide recreation opportunities.