ABOUT NANO TECHNOLOGY :
INTRODUCTION TO NANO COMPUTING , MOLECULAR COMPUTING AND OPTICAL COMPUTING :
INTRODUCTION TO NANO COMPUTING :
A group of scientific studies dealing with nanometre- scale devices and various other particles is about Nanotechnology. The process dealing with nanometre-scale computers is called Nano computing .
The advantages of Nano computing are :
- It will help in changing the IT industry because, by the use of Nanocomputing the storage devices will become even more plentiful than what they presently are.
- It will help develop new architectures and will set new standards to cope up with new and fast machines.
- It will help to replace old and obsolete systems.
- It will be small enough to fit in jacket pockets and still have enough storage capacity to contain all data.
- Such a computer will even have large processing power and best memory storage than that of today’s supercomputers.
Currently there are no Nanocomputers but various organizations are trying to develop it as soon as possible . They can be used in various nanotechnologies and as well as in developing new products .
In short Nanocomputers can be defined as computers with very small components that can be well measured with Nanometers .
NANO COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY :
Nano computing technology is concerned with materials and systems whose structures and components exhibit novel and due to their small size they have significantly developed chemical and physical properties. This field deals with the research, handling, and production of objects and there structures in the size range below 100 nanometres, its the boundary where living and non-living Nature meet.It does have many disadvantages like :
- It creates Economic disruption from an abundance of cheap products
- Personally Risk occurs if used by criminal or terrorist.
- Unstable arms race leading to war
- It Creates environmental damage from unregulated products
- It increases Black marketing of molecular manufacturing
Nanotechnology is a technology in which most of the work to be done in future and till now mainly the concept of this technology has been recommended. So the scientists are not making long commitment for the future of this technology. The various applications of this are :
Medicine:– It is used to treat diseases that are caused due to nano particles , may be due to discontamination of water or other particles .
.Food processing and storage: This includes improved plastic film coatings for food packaging and storage that enables a wider and more efficient distribution of food products to remote areas in less industrialized countries.
Construction: By including nano-molecular structures we can make asphalt and concrete more resistant to water materials to block ultraviolet and infrared radiation, materials for cheaper and durable housing, surfaces, coatings, glues, concrete, and heat and light exclusion; and self-cleaning for windows, mirrors and toilets.
Health monitoring: several nano-devices are being developed to keep track of daily changes in patients physiological variables such as the glucose level, carbon dioxide level, and cholesterol level, without the need for drawing blood in a hospital. This way, diabetes patients would know at any given time the concentration of sugar in their blood; similarly, patients suffering from heart diseases would easily monitor their cholesterol levels constantly.
Nanotechnology is a technology in which most of the work to be done in future and till now mainly the concept of this technology has been proposed.It has the important role in our future in field of Improved transportation, Atom computers, Military applications, Solar energy, and Medical uses.Nanotechnology helps in making every manufacturing products much faster , lighter, stronger, smarter, safer, and cleaner.In spite of having its many disadvantages it has brighten future.
Molecular computing is a nascent technology that seeks to capitalize on the enormous informational capacity of DNA, biological molecules which can store huge amounts of information and are able to perform operations similar to a computer’s through the deployment of enzymes, biological catalysts acts like software to execute the desired operations. This paper gives a perception into evolution and the future of DNA computing. Scientists throughout the globe are now trying to marry computer technology and biology by using nature’s own design to process information.
Molecular computing is a generic term used for any computational scheme which involves individual atoms or molecules as a means for solving computational problems. Its most frequently associated with DNA computing, because its progress is high, it can also be referred to quantum computing. All other forms of molecular computing are currently in their beginning stage, but in the long run are likely to replace old traditional silicon absed computers, which suffer barriers to higher levels of performance.
A single kilogram of carbon contains 5 x 1025 atoms.If we use only 100 atoms to store a single bit or to perform any computational operation. A molecular computing weighing just a kilogram could process more than 1027 operations per second, using massive parallelism, more than a billion times faster than today’s best supercomputer, which operates at about 1017 operations per second. With such a high computational power, we could easily achieve feats of calculation and simulation unimaginable to us today.
Another name for quantum computing is molecular computing. Quantum computing depends upon super cooled atoms locked in entangled states with one another. A major challenge now is that as the number of computational elements increases, it becomes progressively more difficult to insulate the quantum computer from matter on the outside, causing it to deco here, excluding quantum effects and restoring the computer to a classical state; As a result it ruins the calculation.
- With the growth of computing technology the need of high performance computers (HPC) has significantly increased.
- In 1980’s, optical computing was a hot research area. But the work tapered off due to limited materials.
- Instead of electric power, it uses light for performing computations.
- Several features of light has motivated this choice:
- It is very fast. And it exactly has the actual speed what we need for our computers.
- It can be easily manipulated (divided, transported, delayed, split, etc).
- It is very well suited for parallelization. In general, optical computing technology has two directions of development.
- One approach is to build computers that have the same architecture as present day computers but using optics that is Electro optical hybrids.
- And it’s another approach is to create a completely new generation computer, which can be able to perform all functional operations in optical mode.
Why we Use Optics for Computing?
- To make computers faster, their components must be smaller and there by decrease the distance between them.
- It has resulted in the development of very large scale integration (VLSI) technology
- But they are limited not only by the speed of electrons that matter but also by the increasing density of interconnections which are necessary to link the electronic gates on microchips.
- One of the theoretical limits on how fast a computer can function is given by Einstein’s principle that signal cannot propagate faster than speed of light.
- The optical computing acts as a solution of miniaturization problem.
Features of optical computing
- Optical interconnections and optical integrated circuits have several advantages over their electronic counterparts.
- Optical data processing is free from electrical short circuits.
- Optical data processing can perform several operations in parallel much faster and easier than electrons.
- As concern towards its manufacturing they are compact, lightweight and inexpensive.
- Computing is nothing but an optical data processing which can be much easier and is less expensive.
- The bandwidth capacity of optical is higher than electronics, which helps to carry more information.
NANO INFORMATION PROCESSING :
Nano Information processing describes the technology of micro or nano fabrications .It focuses on basic processing techniques like oxidation , diffusion and photolithography . It also offers understanding of certain processing techniques and how they are used in fabrication of devices . This includes the use of modern techniques and technologies .
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